什么样撰写英文科技论文

纪念只要写作一首优秀之英文科研论文,对于无英语母语的科研工作者而言并非同一码好的业务。有时候能否射到还胜划分的笔录刊物与写作水平也紧密。本文通过整理Cell
Research编辑姜姝姝的讲座内容,简单介绍如何编写一篇优秀的英文科研论文。

怀念使描写一篇优秀之英文科研论文,就假设先行清楚什么是两全其美的论文什么不是。
修不喜欢看到底章类型:
(1)逻辑混乱的稿子
(2)用语不当夸大其词或达有无意
(3)语法和外左

寻常而言一篇科研论文包含以下部分:
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Results
Discussion
Materials and Methods
Acknowledgements

Title

题是编或者阅读者首先看的,因此收获一个吓题至关重要。
我们而因此极少之单词概括出文章的主题,对题目来以下三碰要求:
1.简洁,完整,易懂
2.避免出现化学式或特殊符号
3.平凡用以下三栽形式:短语式、句子式和主副式,比如:
短语式:
Cyro-EM structure of human DNA-PK holoenzyme
A vital sugar code for ricin toxicity
句子式:
Suppression of MAPK11 or HIPK3 reduces mutant Huntingtin level in
Huntington’s disease models
Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic
homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage
主副式:
Class I histone deacetylases are major histone decrotonylases: evidecnce
for critical and broad function of histone crotonylation in
transcription

Abstract

Abstract的目的是以拉读者很快了解文章的内容。
发以下几只要求:
1.独立性与完整性
好独立在并能够传达全文核心思想
2.简洁、准确、逻辑性强
因为Abstract有字数限制,我们必须用短短几句话说明全文的核心思想,因此各一个单词和语句都设精心琢磨
3.形式符合期刊的专业
以发表在Cell Research 的‘5-Hydroxymethylcytosine signatures in cell-free
DNA provide information about tumor types and stages’为例:

image.png

Green:课题背景
高亮:结果(可以省略提试方法)
红线:总结(可以适度展望提升)

Introduction

1.介绍本文研究领域的升华面貌(mini-review)
介绍内容自然是跟本文主线最相关的研讨背景。重要的点定要干到。细节处可以当文中提及时再介绍。
2.通过座谈仍研究领域为化解之题目(包括团结前面发表论文不缓解之题材),自然过渡至介绍你的实验目的及严重性。
3.以最终简单介绍本研究所召开的始末和结论。
注意:
自然要于有限的字数内到介绍就知晓是背景,但是不用过分铺开,只要围绕文章主线着重介绍有关的背景即可。

Materials and Methods

相对而言即是同等首文章最轻松的一部分,但是是部分吗是极轻犯错的一些。通常方法材料有些的语法检查最不仔细,常见问题概括:时态、单复数、主动被动语态

Results

1.逻辑很重点,有系统的叙述故事。注意段与段中间的逻辑。可以以各一样有的有些结果的开篇写一些承上启下的语句以连续段。

  1. 各一样段落表达一个观。在每段受到吗要产生逻辑(时间各个,从连到实际的各个,因果顺序),可以以平行的句式和行之有效之连接词。开头和终极很重点,在结尾处要做使人印象深刻的强调。
    3.针对性实验结果开展准确的叙述。如果语言不当会招致误会。推测的结果该利用一些代表想、可能的修饰词语。
    4.对试验结果开展客观之总结和说明。
    5.如果稿子数使用同一档实验,在率先次于介绍时可详细一些,让读者更爱掌握,而自此的介绍好概括些。
    6.
    于叙实验操作以及尝试结果经常用过去不时,在描绘结论与启发时用本常。

叙述实验方法和结果的常用句式:
We found ……
We have noticed that……
We characterized ……
Our analysis showed ……
In order to ……, we ……
We next detected ……
After that, we examined ……
比连接的常用句式:
In Contrast ……
Compared with ……
Consistent with ……
In line with……
Importantly ……
Interestingly ……
Of note ……
In addition ……
敲定和启发时的常用句式:
In conclusion ……
These results suggest that ……
The data indicate that ……
These data demonstrate that ……
Taken together, these results provide further evidence that ……

Discussion

讨论是对立难写的一对,讨论不是对准结果粗略的摆,而是本着结果开展更为深刻的讨论:
乃的钻研解决了世界中哪些问题同困惑
公的钻研提出了争新的或者
事后当怎么样去进一步研究等
貌似,还可以当结尾处再下结论一下好之研究成果

1976年,William Zinsser在《On Writing Well》提出好创作的老三尺码:

“The secret of good writing is to strip every sentences to its
cleanest components. Every word that serves no function, every long
word that could be a short word, every adverb that carries the same
meaning that’s already in the verb, every passive construction that
leaves the reader unsure of who is doing what-these are the thousand
and one adulterants that weaken the strength of a sentence. And they
usually occur in proportion to the education and rank.”
1.多于是主动态(主语+谓语+宾语)
2.差不多为此动词,选择重新可靠之动词。突出动词,尽量不要将动词变为名词。
3.简洁语言

从而主动态

被动态包括:宾语+谓语+主语,或宾语+谓语
eg:
Upon the chemical treatment, the activation of XX signaling pathway
could be observed.
得修改为:
We could observe the activation of XX signaling pathway upon the
chemical treatment.

General dysfunction of the immune system has been suggested in both
mouse and human studies.
好改也:
Both mouse and human studies suggested that XX (disease) cause general
dysfunction of the immune system.

动词

  1. 慎选再准确之动词
    report approximately 可以用estimate替代
  2. 少用to be (am, is, are, be, been, was, were)
  3. 丢把动词名词化
    provide explanation ->explain
    offer confirmation of ->confirm
    report the identification of ->identify
    the recruitment of A by B to initiate ->B recruits A to
    initiate
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX cytoplasmic
    translocation->
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX to translocate into the
    cytoplasmic
  4. 如若将着重的动词靠近主语
    One study of 120 breast cancer patients who received XX treatment in
    North America found that the 15-year survival rate is low.
    ->One study found that, of 120 breast cancer patients who
    received XX treatment in North America, the 15-year survival rate is
    low.

简短语言的注意事项

1.免欲介绍性短语。例如:as it is published; as it is known

2.失丢没有意思之歌词。例如: important

3.啰嗦之词简化,把精力花在关键的句子上
a majority of ->most
a number of ->many
all four of the ->the four
due to the fact that ->because
give rise to ->cause

4.双重意义的乐章要句子用一个
limit condition, output performance

5.推掉一部分副词:very, really, quite

6.用肯定语气
not harmful ->safe
does not have ->lacks
not correct ->wrong
be not the result of A but B ->reflect B rather than A

7.毫不常用365bet体育在线客户端there is/are
There are many ways in which we can handle this case.
->We can handle this case in many ways.

The data suggest there is an association between temperature and crop
diseases.
->The data suggest an association between temperature and crop
diseases.

It is likely that there exists functional redundancy among XX
proteins.
->It is likely that functional redundancy among XX proteins exists.

8.用标点符号来改句式,精简语言
分公司(semicolon): 连接两个单身的从句。
圆括哀号(parenthesis):
加入解释或局部想方设法,即使没有应声部分句也应是独立的。
冒号(Colon):
分隔能力弱于分号,比破折号要规范。用于列举,引用,举例,第二单由句是首先只从句的延。
破折号(dash): 表示强调,解释或者概念。留给重要之用。

于英文作文中我们常犯的题目:
1.科学用语之准头
2.时态荒谬(描述实验过程结果经常用过去式,总结实验结果时用本常常)
3.单复数错误
4.’a’,’an’,’the’的行使不当
5.比较不针对顶:
The root length of XX mutant is shorter than wild type rice.
The root length of XXmutant is shorter than that of wild type
rice.
6.就此词要句式单一
7.语序问题
8.句子过长
9.行使口语化用词

最后,那么我们究竟要如何增强写作技能也?
多看、多读、多写、多总结

得尝尝每次翻阅了论文后为此两三句子话概括或评头品足文章的情
尚足以以读了章中之经典句式、好词摘录下

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