化学答案怎编写英文科技论文

思只要编一篇优秀的英文科研论文,对于不英语母语的科研工作者而言并非同一宗易的业务。有时候能否射到再也强分的记刊物和写作水平也紧密。本文通过整治Cell
Research编辑姜姝姝的讲座内容,简单介绍如何撰写一首优秀之英文科研论文。

思如果写一篇优秀之英文科研论文,就设先了解什么是优之舆论什么不是。
编不欣赏看底章类型:
(1)逻辑混乱的篇章
(2)用语不当夸大其词或发表有无意
(3)语法和另外左

一般说来而言一首科研论文包含以下一些:
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Results
Discussion
Materials and Methods
Acknowledgements

Title

题目是编辑或者阅读者首先看到底,因此获得一个吓题至关重要。
俺们若就此最好少的单词概括出文章的主题,对题目来以下三沾要求:
1.简洁,完整,易懂
2.避免出现化学式或特殊符号
3.普通以以下三种形式:短语式、句子式和主副式,比如:
短语式:
Cyro-EM structure of human DNA-PK holoenzyme
A vital sugar code for ricin toxicity
句子式:
Suppression of MAPK11 or HIPK3 reduces mutant Huntingtin level in
Huntington’s disease models
Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic
homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage
主副式:
Class I histone deacetylases are major histone decrotonylases: evidecnce
for critical and broad function of histone crotonylation in
transcription

Abstract

Abstract的目的是以帮忙读者很快了解文章的内容。
有以下几只要求:
1.独立性和完整性
可以单独在并会传达全文核心思想
2.简洁、准确、逻辑性强
坐Abstract有字数限制,我们得用不久几句话说明全文的核心思想,因此各一个单词和语句都设精心斟酌
3.花样符合期刊的正规化
坐发表于Cell Research 的‘5-Hydroxymethylcytosine signatures in cell-free
DNA provide information about tumor types and stages’为例:

image.png

Green:课题背景
高亮:结果(可以省略提试方法)
红线:总结(可以方便展望提升)

Introduction

1.介绍本文研究世界的进化面貌(mini-review)
介绍内容自然是跟本文主线最相关的钻背景。重要之触发得要涉及到。细节处可以在文中提及时再介绍。
2.透过座谈仍研究世界也缓解之题目(包括自己前面发表论文不缓解之题材),自然过渡至介绍你的尝试目的及重大。
3.每当终极简单介绍本研究所召开的情节和结论。
注意:
毫无疑问要以片的字数内到介绍就知晓不易背景,但是不要过于铺开,只要围绕文章主线着重介绍有关的背景即可。

Materials and Methods

对立而言就是一样首文章最自在的一对,但是是有吗是极度易犯错的组成部分。通常方法材料有些的语法检查最不过细,常见问题概括:时态、单复数、主动被动语态

Results

1.逻辑很重大,有系统的描述故事。注意段和段中间的逻辑。可以于每一样有些的稍结果的开赛写有承上启下的词以连续段。

  1. 各级一样段落表达一个见识。在每段受到也如产生逻辑(时间各个,从连到实际的相继,因果顺序),可以以平行的句式和中之连接词。开头和最终很重点,在结尾处要做让人记忆深刻的强调。
    3.对准实验结果进行标准的讲述。如果语言不当会促成误解。推测的结果当以有意味想、可能的修饰词语。
    4.对试验结果开展客观之下结论及分解。
    5.如果稿子数使同一型实验,在率先次介绍时可详细一些,让读者更易掌握,而其后的牵线好概括些。
    6.
    在描述实验操作和实验结果经常用过去时常,在描绘结论与开导时用今天时时。

叙实验方法和结果的常用句式:
We found ……
We have noticed that……
We characterized ……
Our analysis showed ……
In order to ……, we ……
We next detected ……
After that, we examined ……
较连接的常用句式:
In Contrast ……
Compared with ……
Consistent with ……
In line with……
Importantly ……
Interestingly ……
Of note ……
In addition ……
敲定和开导时的常用句式:
In conclusion ……
These results suggest that ……
The data indicate that ……
These data demonstrate that ……
Taken together, these results provide further evidence that ……

Discussion

座谈是相对难写的片,讨论不是针对性结果粗略的陈列,而是对结果开展更为深刻的议论:
若的研讨解决了世界受到怎样问题与迷离
卿的钻研提出了如何新的或许
后来当怎样去进一步研究等
相似,还得于结尾处再下结论一下融洽的研究成果

1976年,William Zinsser在《On Writing Well》提出好创作的老三条件:

“The secret of good writing is to strip every sentences to its
cleanest components. Every word that serves no function, every long
word that could be a short word, every adverb that carries the same
meaning that’s already in the verb, every passive construction that
leaves the reader unsure of who is doing what-these are the thousand
and one adulterants that weaken the strength of a sentence. And they
usually occur in proportion to the education and rank.”
1.几近因此主动态(主语+谓语+宾语)
2.多据此动词,选择重复标准的动词。突出动词,尽量不要将动词变为名词。
3.精简语言

之所以主动态

让动态包括:宾语+谓语+主语,或宾语+谓语
eg:
Upon the chemical treatment, the activation of XX signaling pathway
could be observed.
可修改也:
We could observe the activation of XX signaling pathway upon the
chemical treatment.

General dysfunction of the immune system has been suggested in both
mouse and human studies.
足改也:
Both mouse and human studies suggested that XX (disease) cause general
dysfunction of the immune system.

动词

  1. 挑选重新精确的动词
    report approximately 可以用estimate替代
  2. 少用to be (am, is, are, be, been, was, were)
  3. 丢把动词名词化
    provide explanation ->explain
    offer confirmation of ->confirm
    report the identification of ->identify
    the recruitment of A by B to initiate ->B recruits A to
    initiate
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX cytoplasmic
    translocation->
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX to translocate into the
    cytoplasmic
  4. 要以根本的动词靠近主语
    One study of 120 breast cancer patients who received XX treatment in
    North America found that the 15-year survival rate is low.
    ->One study found that, of 120 breast cancer patients who
    received XX treatment in North America, the 15-year survival rate is
    low.

从简语言的注意事项

1.免待介绍性短语。例如:as it is published; as it is known

2.失丢没有意义之词。例如: important

3.啰嗦之词简化,把精力花在第一的句子上
a majority of ->most
a number of ->many
all four of the ->the four
due to the fact that ->because
give rise to ->cause

4.再度意义之乐章要句子用一个
limit condition, output performance

5.推掉一部分副词:very, really, quite

6.用肯定语气
not harmful ->safe
does not have ->lacks
not correct ->wrong
be not the result of A but B ->reflect B rather than A

7.并非常用there is/are
There are many ways in which we can handle this case.
->We can handle this case in many ways.

The data suggest there is an association between temperature and crop
diseases.
->The data suggest an association between temperature and crop
diseases.

It is likely that there exists functional redundancy among XX
proteins.
->It is likely that functional redundancy among XX proteins exists.

8.用标点符号来改变句式,精简语言
支行(semicolon): 连接两只单身的从句。
圆括如泣如诉(parenthesis):
加入解释或有想法,即使没马上有的词也理应是独自的。
冒号(Colon):
分隔能力弱于分号,比破折号要标准。用于列举,引用,举例,第二单由句是首先只从句之延伸。
破折号(dash): 表示强调,解释还是概念。留给重要的用处。

在英文作文中我们常犯的问题:
1.科学措辞之准头
2.时态荒谬(描述实验过程结果时用过去式,总结实验结果经常用本常常)
3.单复数错误
4.’a’,’an’,’the’的使不当
5.比较不对准顶:
The root length of XX mutant is shorter than wild type rice.
The root length of XXmutant is shorter than that of wild type
rice.
6.为此词或句式单一
7.语序问题
8.句子过长
9.行使口语化用词

末了,那么我们到底要怎么提高写作技能呢?
多看、多读、多写、多总结

足尝尝每次看了论文后用两三句子话概括或评头品足文章的情
尚好将读了章被的经文句式、好歌词摘录下

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