什么做英文科技论文

相思如果写一篇优秀之英文科研论文,对于无英语母语的科研工作者而言并非同一件容易的事体。有时候能否射到更强划分的笔录刊物与写作水平也紧紧。本文通过整理Cell
Research编辑姜姝姝的讲座内容,简单介绍如何编写一篇优秀之英文科研论文。

纪念使描绘一首优秀之英文科研论文,就假设先了解啊是优之舆论什么不是。
编排不希罕看到的文章类型:
(1)逻辑混乱的篇章
(2)用语不当夸大其词或发表有无意
(3)语法和任何左

万般而言一篇科研论文包含以下一些:
Title
Abstract
Introduction
Results
Discussion
Materials and Methods
Acknowledgements

Title

题目是编制或者阅读者首先看底,因此获得一个吓题至关重要。
俺们如果为此最好少之单词概括出文章的主题,对题目来以下三点要求:
1.简洁,完整,易懂
2.避免出现化学式或特殊符号
3.习以为常采取以下三种样式:短语式、句子式和主副式,比如:
短语式:
Cyro-EM structure of human DNA-PK holoenzyme
A vital sugar code for ricin toxicity
句子式:
Suppression of MAPK11 or HIPK3 reduces mutant Huntingtin level in
Huntington’s disease models
Intermittent fasting promotes adipose thermogenesis and metabolic
homeostasis via VEGF-mediated alternative activation of macrophage
主副式:
Class I histone deacetylases are major histone decrotonylases: evidecnce
for critical and broad function of histone crotonylation in
transcription

Abstract

Abstract的目的是为着协助读者很快了解文章的情。
产生以下几个要求:
1.独立性与完整性
可单独在并能传达全文核心思想
2.简洁、准确、逻辑性强
为Abstract有字数限制,我们必须用不久几句话说明全文的核心思想,因此各国一个单词和语句都使细心斟酌
3.式符合期刊的标准
坐发表于Cell Research 的‘5-Hydroxymethylcytosine signatures in cell-free
DNA provide information about tumor types and stages’为条例:

image.png

Green:课题背景
高亮:结果(可以概括提试艺术)
红线:总结(可以适度展望提升)

Introduction

1.介绍本文研究领域的发展面貌(mini-review)
介绍内容自然是跟本文主线最相关的研讨背景。重要的接触定要干到。细节处可以当文中提及时再介绍。
2.通过座谈仍研究领域为化解之题目(包括团结前面发表论文不缓解之题材),自然过渡至介绍你的实验目的及要。
3.以最终简单介绍以研究所召开的情和结论。
注意:
自然要于点滴的字数内全面介绍就掌握不易背景,但是不用过于铺开,只要围绕文章主线着重介绍相关的背景即可。

Materials and Methods

对立而言即是如出一辙首文章最自在的有,但是这部分为是极致易犯错的片段。通常方法材料有的语法检查最不密切,常见问题概括:时态、单复数、主动被动语态

Results

1.逻辑很要紧,有系统的叙说故事。注意段及段内的逻辑。可以在各国一样有些的小结果的开篇写有承上启下的语句以连续段。

  1. 每一样段子表达一个见识。在各个段受到呢只要出逻辑(时间顺序,从连到实际的相继,因果顺序),可以行使平行的句式和有效的连接词。开头和尾声很重要,在结尾处要举行使人记忆深刻的强调。
    3.针对试验结果进行精确之叙说。如果语言不当会招误解。推测的结果当以有意味着想、可能的修饰词语。
    4.针对性实验结果开展合理的总和释疑。
    5.如果篇数动同一档次实验,在首先涂鸦介绍时不过详细一些,让读者更便于掌握,而下的介绍好略些。
    6.
    在叙实验操作以及实验结果经常用过去时常,在描绘结论与启迪时用本时时。

叙实验方法和结果的常用句式:
We found ……
We have noticed that……
We characterized ……
Our analysis showed ……
In order to ……, we ……
We next detected ……
After that, we examined ……
比较连接的常用句式:
In Contrast ……
Compared with ……
Consistent with ……
In line with……
Importantly ……
Interestingly ……
Of note ……
In addition ……
敲定和启迪时的常用句式:
In conclusion ……
These results suggest that ……
The data indicate that ……
These data demonstrate that ……
Taken together, these results provide further evidence that ……

Discussion

议论是对立难写的有的,讨论不是本着结果粗略的摆,而是本着结果开展更加深切的议论:
您的钻研解决了世界中如何问题跟疑惑
若的钻研提出了怎么新的可能
事后该什么去进一步研究等
貌似,还足以当结尾处再总结一下谈得来之研究成果

1976年,William Zinsser在《On Writing Well》提出优质创作的老三口径:

“The secret of good writing is to strip every sentences to its
cleanest components. Every word that serves no function, every long
word that could be a short word, every adverb that carries the same
meaning that’s already in the verb, every passive construction that
leaves the reader unsure of who is doing what-these are the thousand
and one adulterants that weaken the strength of a sentence. And they
usually occur in proportion to the education and rank.”
1.基本上就此主动态(主语+谓语+宾语)
2.几近因此动词,选择重新精确的动词。突出动词,尽量不要把动词变为名词。
3.简单语言

之所以主动态

于动态包括:宾语+谓语+主语,或宾语+谓语
eg:
Upon the chemical treatment, the activation of XX signaling pathway
could be observed.
得改也:
We could observe the activation of XX signaling pathway upon the
chemical treatment.

General dysfunction of the immune system has been suggested in both
mouse and human studies.
好修改为:
Both mouse and human studies suggested that XX (disease) cause general
dysfunction of the immune system.

动词

  1. 挑重复确切之动词
    report approximately 可以用estimate替代
  2. 少用to be (am, is, are, be, been, was, were)
  3. 少把动词名词化
    provide explanation ->explain
    offer confirmation of ->confirm
    report the identification of ->identify
    the recruitment of A by B to initiate ->B recruits A to
    initiate
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX cytoplasmic
    translocation->
    2mM sodium hydroxide rapidly induced XX to translocate into the
    cytoplasmic
  4. 而拿重要的动词靠近主语
    One study of 120 breast cancer patients who received XX treatment in
    North America found that the 15-year survival rate is low.
    ->One study found that, of 120 breast cancer patients who
    received XX treatment in North America, the 15-year survival rate is
    low.

简洁语言的注意事项

1.非需介绍性短语。例如:as it is published; as it is known

2.失丢没有意义的词。例如: important

3.啰嗦底词简化,把精力花在主要的语句上
a majority of ->most
a number of ->many
all four of the ->the four
due to the fact that ->because
give rise to ->cause

4.更意义之歌词要句子用一个
limit condition, output performance

5.推掉一部分副词:very, really, quite

6.用肯定语气
not harmful ->safe
does not have ->lacks
not correct ->wrong
be not the result of A but B ->reflect B rather than A

7.绝不常用there is/are
There are many ways in which we can handle this case.
->We can handle this case in many ways.

The data suggest there is an association between temperature and crop
diseases.
->The data suggest an association between temperature and crop
diseases.

It is likely that there exists functional redundancy among XX
proteins.
->It is likely that functional redundancy among XX proteins exists.

8.用标点符号来转句式,精简语言
分公司(semicolon): 连接两独独立的从句。
圆括号(parenthesis):
加入解释还是有想方设法,即使没立刻部分句也应有是独立的。
冒号(Colon):
分隔能力弱于分号,比破折号要正式。用于列举,引用,举例,第二独从句是首先单自句的延长。
破折号(dash): 表示强调,解释或概念。留给重要的用处。

在英文作文中我们常犯的问题:
1.科学措辞的准确性
2.时态错(描述实验过程结果时用过去式,总结实验结果经常用现时时)
3.单复数错误
4.’a’,’an’,’the’的运不当
5.比不对准顶:
The root length of XX mutant is shorter than wild type rice.
The root length of XXmutant is shorter than that of wild type
rice.
6.用词或句式单一
7.语序问题
8.句子过长
9.应用口语化用词

说到底,那么我们到底要什么样增强写作技能呢?
多看、多读、多写、多总结

可以品味每次看了论文后为此两三句话概括或臧否文章的情节
还可以将读了章被的经文句式、好歌词摘录下

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